The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 48, Number 3 - July 2000 - English
Special Issue: Epirical Validation of Hypnotic Interventions
The impact of posthypnotic amnesia and directed forgetting on implicit and explicit memory: New insights from a modified process dissociation procedure
Daniel David, Richard Brown, Pojogo Cristina, and Alin David
The authors describe a study investigating the relationship between posthypnotic amnesia (PHA) and directed forgetting (DF) and their impact on implicit and explicit memory. This study adopted a recent modification of the process dissociation procedure to accommodate the cross-contamination of memory test performance by implicit and explicit memorial factors. Forty high and 40 low hypnotically susceptible participants were compared in PHA, DF, and control conditions on estimates of voluntary conscious (VCM), involuntary conscious (ICM), and involuntary unconscious memory (IUM) performance. Both groups showed significant decrements in VCM and ICM following instructions for DF, whereas only high susceptibles showed this decrement in the PHA condition; neither DF nor PHA affected IUM. Moreover, there was no relationship between forgetting in PHA and DF. Although both PHA and DF seem to prevent the conscious (i.e. explicit) expression of memorial information while leaving implicit memory intact, the mechanisms underlying these phenomena may nevertheless be different.
Treatment outcome expectancies and hypnotic susceptibility as moderators of pain reduction in patients with chronic tension-type headache
Philip Spinhoven and Moniek M. ter Kuile
The aim of this study was to determine whether hypnotic susceptibility (a) predicts pain reduction posttreatment and at follow-up independent of generic expectations of treatment outcome and mode of treatment; and (b) predicts persistence of pain reduction during the follow-up period. In 169 patients with chronic tension-type headaches randomly allocated to either self-hypnosis or autogenic training, pain reduction posttreatment and at follow-up was significantly associated with hypnotic susceptibility independent of generic expectations of treatment outcome and treatment condition. Moreover, it was found that early responders obtained significantly higher hypnotic susceptibility scores than nonresponders, although there were no significant differences in hypnotic susceptibility between late responders in comparison to early and nonresponders. However, almost one fourth of those who were nonresponders posttreatment, did respond at follow-up.
Hypnotizability and absorption in a Danish sample: Testing the influence of context
Robert Zachariae, Michael Martini J¿rgensen, S¿ren Christensen
This study tests the validity of a Danish translation of the Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS) by investigating the correlation between scores on the TAS and a previously validated Danish translation of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) in a sample of 168 subjects. Mean TAS and HGSHS scores were comparable to those found in U.S. samples. The correlation between absorption and hypnotizability was calculated for scores obtained in the same session (N = 84) and for scores obtained independently in 2 sessions taking place 2 to 12 months apart (N = 84). The results showed a significant relationship between absorption and hypnotizability when absorption was assessed in the hypnotic context. A significant association was also found when absorption and hypnotizability were assessed independently. The findings support the construct validity of the Danish translation of the TAS and reaffirm results of previous studies suggesting that absorption is an important predictor of hypnotizability.
Italian norms for the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Anna Bellusci, and Paolo Maria Russo
This paper presents norms for an Italian translation of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962). Archival data on hypnosis research subjects recruited over a 10-year period were pooled, resulting in an aggregate sample of 356 participants (263 female and 93 male). Score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability of the SHSS:C were computed. Of this group, 218 subjects were administered the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility (HGSHS:A) approximately 3 weeks prior to administration of the SHSS:C. The remaining 138 subjects received only the SHSS:C. Results suggest that the Italian version of the SHSS:C is a reliable and valid measure.
The psychodynamic treatment of combat neuroses (PTSD) with hypnosis during World War II
John D. Watkins
In a large Army hospital during World War II, a full-time program in hypnotherapy for battle trauma cases (PTSD) was developed. Symptoms included severe anxiety, phobias, conversions, hysterias, and dissociations. Many hypnoanalytic techniques were used, especially including abreactions. Good therapeutic results were frequent, as demonstrated by typical cases. There was no evidence that the abreactive procedure tended to retraumatize patients or initiate psychotic reactions.