The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 48, Number 1 - January 2000 - English
Hypnotizability and the use of traditional Dhami-Jhankri healing in Nepal
Amitava Biswas, Donna See, Manuela M Kogon and David Spiegel.
This study examined the role of hypnotic responsiveness in the practice of a dhami-jhankri, a traditional Nepalese healer. The hypnotic capacity of 248 male patients was measured in an allopathic (Western) clinic, an Ayurvedic (ancient Hindu healing art) clinic, and a dhami-jhankri's practice. Hypnotizability was assessed using the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP). The Induction Scores of the HIP were significantly higher among the dhami-jhankri's patients than among either the Ayurvedic or allopathic patients. Furthermore, patients who returned to the dhami-jhankri were more highly hypnotizable than first-time dhami-jhankri patients. In addition, treatment satisfaction as reported by dhami-jhankri patients was positively correlated with HIP scores. The authors conclude that hypnotic phenomena as measured in the West might be an important component of the dhami-jhankri's treatment in the East.
Cardiovascular reactivity during hypnosis and hypnotic susceptibility: Three studies of heart rate variability
William J. Ray, David Sabsevitz, Vilfredo De Pascalis, Karen Quigley, Deane Aikins and Melissa Tubbs
This paper was designed to examine the relationship between hypnotic susceptibility and cardiovascular measures, especially parasympathetic activity, in 3 separate studies. In these studies, neither heart rate nor heart rate variability differed between the high and low hypnotically susceptible individuals at the initial baseline. Further, in the first study experimental tasks designed to elicit differential sympathetic and parasympathetic cardiac responses demonstrated no interaction with hypnotic susceptibility. Overall, these 3 studies suggest that hypnotic susceptibility in itself is not associated with parasympathetic aspects of either basal cardiac states or cardiac responses. In addition, a hypnotic induction itself did not differentially influence parasympathetic activity for the high vs. low susceptible individuals.
Suggestion difficulty as a hypothesized moderator of the relation between absorption and suggestibility: A new spectral analysis
Irving Kirsch, Leonard S. Milling, and Cheryl Burgess
Measures of hypnotic suggestibility and absorption were administered to 146 participants in the guise of different experiments. A spectral analysis was performed by correlating the difficulty of individual hypnotic suggestions with the magnitude of the association between suggestions and absorption. Contrary to the two-component model, absorption was not more highly correlated with passing difficult suggestions than easier suggestions. This was confirmed by a meta-analysis of this and other spectral analysis studies. In addition, cross-study correlations revealed that the magnitude of the association between absorption and individual suggestions is highly variable, rendering the two-component model very difficult to test. These findings indicate that discrepant results in previous spectral analyses may have been due to low reliability of associations with individual scale items, as well as the relatively small number of correlations that constitute the raw data of these analyses.
Italian norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A
Vilfredo De Pascalis, Paolo Russo, and Francesco S. Marucci
Norms for an Italian translation of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) by Shor & E. Orne (1962) are presented. Subjects recruited from 1986 to 1989 were pooled, resulting in a sample of 376 participants (297 women and 79 men). The normative data were generally congruent with earlier normative studies in score distribution, item difficulty levels, and reliability. Women had significantly higher hypnotizability scores and item pass rates than men. The reliability scores of the Italian adaptation of the HGSHS:A were the same as a previously reported Danish sample and higher than a German sample, but lower thanthose of the Australian, Canadian, and original American samples. These results suggest that the Italian version of the HGSHS:A is an efficient tool for initial hypnotizability screening in an Italian context.