The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 45, Number 1 - January 1997 - English
Hypnotizability, the Dissociative Experiences Scale, HGSHS:A amnesia, and automatic writing: Is there an association?
Examined whether 112 Ss (college students) selected on the basis of high and low dissociative ability (Dissociative Experiences Scale [DES]) high and low/simulating hypnotizability (Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A [HGSHS:A]), and past performance on the HGSHS:A amnesia item differentially passed an automatic writing suggestion administered during a follow-up experiment. Results from a loglinear analysis supported a single main effect for hypnotizability. Low hypnotizable, simulating Ss were more than 6 times as likely to pass the automatic writing suggestion than high hypnotizable Ss. Results found dissociation status and past performance on an ostensibly dissociative suggestion (i.e., amnesia) to be independent of passing the automatic writing suggestion. Findings are discussed in light of other research regarding the relation between the DES and hypnotizability.
The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and anxiety on eyewitness memory.
Ready,-David-J.; Bothwell,-Robert-K.; Brigham,-John-C.
The effects of hypnosis, context reinstatement, and motivational instructions on accuracy of recall for factual information and facial recognition accuracy following a stressful event were assessed using 100 undergraduates. None of the 3 techniques had a significant effect on factual memory or susceptibility to suggestion as assessed by true-false and multiple-choice tests. However, participants high in hypnotic susceptibility showed somewhat better memory on the true-false test, and hypnosis affected performance on the 2 photograph line-ups. In addition, hypnosis appeared to enhance facial recognition accuracy for Ss who were low in anxiety, but not for those high in anxiety. Finally, there was evidence of a curvilinear relationship between self-reported anxiety at time of retrieval and facial recognition accuracy.
Depersonalization and derealization during panic and hypnosis in low and highly hypnotizable agoraphobics.
Investigated the association between spontaneous experiences of depersonalization or derealization (D-D) during panic states and hypnosis in low and highly hypnotizable phobic individuals. Secondarily, the association among level of hypnotizability, capacity for imaginative involvement, and severity of phobic complaints was also assessed. 64 patients with panic disorder with agoraphobia according to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders-III-Revised (DSM-III-R) criteria participated in the study. Proneness to experience D-D during hypnosis was positively related to hypnotizability, but only for agoraphobic patients who had already experienced these perceptual distortions during panic episodes. Correlations of level of hypnotizability and capacity for imaginative involvement with severity of agoraphobic complaints were not significant. These findings suggest that hypnotizability may be a mediating variable between two different, although phenotypically similar, perceptual distortions experienced during panic states and hypnosis.
Illusory safeguards: Legitimizing distortion in recall with guidelines for forensic hypnosis: Two case reports.
Two amnesic automobile accident victims remembered the information needed for their ongoing lawsuits during hypnosis. Meeting the recording requirements of the Hurd safeguards led to the admission of hypnotically influenced testimony in court in one case, whereas failure to record led to exclusion in the other. in both cases, closed-head trauma almost certainly prevented long-term memory consolidation. Thus adherence to guidelines for forensic hypnosis legitimized distortions in recall instead of preventing them. Hypnosis used to facilitate hypermnesia alters expectations about what can be remembered, makes memory more vulnerable to postevent information, and increases confidence without a corresponding increase in accuracy. Distortion of recall is an inherent problem with the use of hypnosis and hypnotic-like procedures and cannot be adequately prevented by any set of guidelines.
Forensic and legal implications in clinical practice: A master class commentary.
Reviews potential legal implications and risk management procedures regarding the use of hypnosis in clinical practice. Topics discussed include situations where hypnosis is the treatment of choice as well as where it is contraindicated, accepted standards of care, legal requirements (e.g., need for informed consent), choice of hypnotic strategies, and the need for documentation. Standards of care are reviewed that must be followed when hypnotically working with victims and witnesses, and issues related to working with memory and sexual abuse problems are discussed.