The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 54, Number 2 - April 2006 - English
Special Issue on Ego State Therapy
Six Players on the Inner Stage: Using Ego State Therapy with the Medically Ill
The symptoms of medical illness often speak through eloquent, embedded metaphors that express deeper unconscious conflicts and meanings. Therapeutic attunement to the multi-layered issues associated with a patient’s illness can be instrumental in the uncovering and working through of conflicts that may impede both physical and emotional healing. Among hypnotically facilitated psychotherapeutic approaches that can be helpful, ego state techniques offer rapid access to these illness-associated issues. This article discusses six different ego states that are key players in the illness drama for many patients. Five of these are indwelling components of the patient’s psyche, whereas the sixth player belongs to the therapist’s resonant self. All of them are relevant when the practitioner seeks to facilitate deeper healing in patients with mind/body conditions.
Hypnosis Delivered Through Immersive Virtual Reality for Burn Pain
David Patterson, S. Wiechman, M. Jensen, and S. Sharar
This study is the first to use virtual-reality technology on a series of clinical patients to make hypnotic analgesia less effortful for patients and to increase the efficiency of hypnosis by eliminating the need for the presence of a trained clinician. This technologically based hypnotic induction was used to deliver hypnotic analgesia to burn-injury patients undergoing painful wound-care procedures. Pre- and postprocedure measures were collected on 13 patients with burn injuries across 3 days. In an uncontrolled series of cases, there was a decrease in reported pain and anxiety, and the need for opioid medication was cut in half. The results support additional research on the utility and efficacy of hypnotic analgesia provided by virtual-reality hypnosis.
Mindfulness, Acceptance, and Hypnosis: Cognitive and Clinical Perspectives
Steven Jay Lynn. Lama Surya Das, Michael Hallquest, and John Willliams
The authors propose that hypnosis and mindfulness-based approaches can be used in tandem to create adaptive response sets and to deautomatize maladaptive response sets. They summarize recent research on the effectiveness of mindfulness-based approaches in clinical and nonclinical contexts and propose that the cognitive underpinnings of mindfulness approaches can be conceptualized in terms of the meta-cognitive basis of mindful attention, Toneatto’s elucidation of the Buddhist perspective on cognition, and Kirsch and Lynn’s response-set theory. They also suggest that mindfulness can serve as a template for generating an array of suggestions that provides cognitive strategies to contend with problems in living and to ameliorate stress and negative affect more generally. Many of the ideas the authors advance are speculative and are intended to spur additional research and clinical work.
The Special Effects of Hypnosis and Hypnotherapy: A Contribution to an Ecological Model of Therapeutic Change
There is ample evidence that hypnosis enhances the effectiveness of psychotherapy and produces some astounding effects of its own. This paper analyzes the effective components and principles of hypnosis and hypnotherapy. Special hypnotic and hypnotherapeutic effects are linked to the fact that the ecological requirements of therapeutic change are taken into account implicitly and/or explicitly when working with hypnotic trances in a therapeutic setting. The hypnotic situation is described—theoretically and in case examples—as a context that gratifies and aligns the basic emotional needs to feel autonomous, related, competent, and oriented. The author illustrates how the hypnotic relationship can help promote a sound ecological balance between these needs—a balance that is deemed a necessary prerequisite for salutogenesis. Practical implications for planning hypnotherapeutic interventions are discussed.
Suggestions of Altered Balance: Possible Equivalence of Imagery and Perception
Giancarlo Carli and Carmela Rendo, Laura Sebastiani and Enrica l. Santarcangelo
Hypnotic suggestions describing an altered perception induce congruent changes in the subject’s experience and behavior. However, it is not known whether an implicit suggestion, only indirectly referring to an altered perception, induces a behavioral response corresponding to that of the real situation. In this study, an implicit suggestion of backward falling (IMP) was given to high hypnotizable participants not exposed (W-Highs) and exposed (H-Highs) to a hypnotic induction and to a group of low hypnotizable individuals (W-Lows). Their posture was evaluated through an Elite System. The results after the IMP were compared with those after an explicit suggestion of backward falling (EXP). In both W-Highs and H-Highs, the IMP elicited the backward body sway expected in the corresponding real situation, whereas no response was found in W-Lows. The results are discussed in terms of a possible equivalence of imagery and perception or of a lack of the motor inhibition normally associated with motor imagery.
A Meta-Analysis of Gender, Smoking Cessation, and Hypnosis: A Brief Communication
Joseph P. Green, Steven Jay Lynn and Guy H. Montgomery
Results of a meta-analysis showed that males were more likely to report smoking abstinence than female participants following hypnosis-based treatments for smoking. Across 12 studies that used hypnosis in the treatment of smoking and reported outcome statistics by gender, the authors found that the odds of achieving smoking abstinence were 1.37 times greater for male than female participants. The results are consistent with the nonhypnosis literature suggesting that females have a more difficult time achieving smoking abstinence compared to males.
Motor and Sensory Dissociative Phenomena
Associated with Induced Catalepsy: A brief communication
Muriel A. Hagenaars, Karin Roelofs, Kees Hoogduin, & Agnes van Minnen
The purpose of this study was to investigate dissociative symptoms that may occur as an epiphenomenon of tactile-induced catalepsy. In 15 participants, catalepsy was induced in the right arm, and dissociative symptoms were evaluated using a self-report questionnaire. In comparison with the left, noncataleptic arm, the right cataleptic arm was perceived differently. In addition to increased rigidity, the cataleptic arm was characterized by the presence of paresthesias, a decreased perception of sense and a decreased awareness of the arm. Moreover, the self-reported changes in perception were significantly correlated to the hypnotically induced arm-immobilization part of the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale. In conclusion, catalepsy induction elicits a variety of dissociative symptoms and provides a useful research paradigm for the study of motor-perceptual dissociative phenomena.