The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 52, Number 2 - April 2004 - English
Cam Perry, Heraclitus, and Hypnosis: An Appreciative Understanding
Kevin M. McConkey and Peter W. Sheehan
Abstract: The authors summarize personal, intellectual, and social influences on Campbell Perry's (1937–2003) life and research on hypnosis. His education in Australia reflected the influences of a public primary school, a prestigious private high school, and undergraduate and graduate work at Australia's oldest university. His approach to hypnosis was influenced initially by Gordon Hammer and Philip Sutcliffe, and his life generally was influenced by John Anderson, the leader of the Libertarian Society, which was the intellectual core of a broader group known as The Push. This group reflected in part the thinking of the pre-Socratic Greek philosopher, Heraclitus, who taught that change was the only reality. The article summarizes Perry’s work on hypnosis and memory and his contributions concerning uncancelled hypnotic suggestions, pain and surgery, and imagery and hypnotisability are summarized. In our view, Cam was a man of merciful tenderness, who had some intensely human qualities, including intelligence, integrity, and loyalty.
The Historical Role of Hypnosis in the Theoretical Origins of Transference
Melvin A. Gravitz
Abstract: There has been a gradual evolution of the important construct of transference from ancient to modern times. Long before Franz Anton Mesmer, there were philosophers, theorists, and health professionals who emphasized the impact of interpersonal relationships on well being and illness. While basically conceptualizing animal magnetism as a dynamic physical fluid, Mesmer was also aware of the impact of rapport and affect in the enhancement of magnetic treatment. Later neo-mesmerists, notably Puységur and Deleuze, built on such theories. That emphasis continued through the 19th century to the time of Freud, whose construct of transference was derived from his personal experience with hypnosis and which has since become an integral part of modern psychodynamic theory and treatment.
Four Decades Of Group Hypnosis Scales: What Does Item Response Theory Tell Us About What We’ve Been Measuring?
Pamela Sadler and Erik Z. Woody
Abstract: To overcome problems with previous psychometric approaches to hypnosis scales, the authors applied full-information factor analysis, based on multidimensional item-response theory (IRT), to a 39-year sample of 11,517 records of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A). They also performed a comparable analysis on the standardization sample of the Waterloo-Stanford Group C Scale (WSGC). The HGSHS:A emerges as two-factored, whereas the WSGC more closely approaches unidimensionality. The HGSHS:A factor structure and means show very little change over 4 decades. However, IRT-based item analysis on the HGSHS:A indicates that problems such as “pseudo-guessing” on 2 items limit the quality of the item set. The authors propose alternative substantive interpretations of the traits that may underlie the two-factor structure.
See Clearly: Suggestion, Hypnosis, Attention, and Visual Acuity
Amir Raz, Gerald P. Marinoff, Zohar R. Zephrani, Heather R. Schweizer, and Michael I. Posner
Abstract: Some reports claim that positive suggestion (e.g., using hypnosis) can significantly improve visual acuity (e.g., in myopes). Based on behavioral, neurocognitive, and ophthalmological findings, the authors provide a critical account to review and challenge some of these data. While acknowledging the relative merits of hypnosis for investigating visual phenomena, an array of arguments converges to propose caveats to the apparent influence suggestion can exert on visual acuity. The authors argue that neither suggestion nor hypnotic phenomena are likely to significantly improve myopic vision and contend that a responsible scientific attitude should carefully outline what hypnosis and suggestion cannot do in addition to what they can. It seems likely that the small apparent influence of suggestion on visual acuity is mediated by changes in attention. The authors outline how attention can affect visual acuity.
Reality Monitoring in Hypnosis: A Pilot Investigation
Richard A. Bryant and David Mallard
Abstract: In a pilot investigation of reality monitoring in hypnosis, 10 high and 10 low hypnotizable participants were administered a hypnotic suggestion to hallucinate a visual shape on a wall. For half the participants, an image was subtly projected onto the wall at the commencement of the suggestion and then subsequently removed. For the remaining participants, the projected image was initially absent and subsequently projected. Participants completed ratings of belief in the suggestion during hypnosis and also provided subjective reports of the suggestion during a subsequent Experiential Analysis Technique session. High hypnotizable participants who had the projected image introduced at the end of the suggestion provided comparable belief ratings when the image was present and absent. In contrast, highs who had the projected image presented first reported less belief when the image was absent than when it was present. Low hypnotizable participants rated the hallucination more strongly when the image was projected than when it was not projected. These pilot data are discussed in terms of developing a paradigm to objectively index the perceived reality of hypnotically suggested experiences.