The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 54, Number 3 - July 2006 - English
Rapid Induction of Hypnosis by “Finger Elongation”: A Brief Communication.
STEPHAN EITNER, MANFRED WICHMANN AND ANDREAS SCHLEGEL
Abstract: This clinical pilot study on finger elongation for induction of hypnosis attempts to determine whether the observed response is a hypnotic phenomenon or a simple physiologic reaction. Sixteen volunteers participated in the 5-phase study that measured relative and absolute changes in length for each finger prior to and after each cycle (phase). A distinctive elongation was statistically significant for the hypnosis condition. In addition, findings suggest changes in the metacarpus. Further investigation is indicated to shed light on this apparent phenomenon.
Cultural Views and Attitudes About Hypnosis: A Survey of College Students Across Four Countries
JOSEPH P. GREEN, ROGER A. PAGE, ROUHANGIZ RASEKHY, LISSA K. JOHNSON, AND SARAH E. BERNHARDT
Abstract: The present investigation surveyed attitudes and beliefs about hypnosis across 4 samples of students attending college at the University of New South Wales, Australia; Dortman University, Germany; The Ohio State University, United States; and Shaheed Beheshti University of Medical Sciences, Iran. A total of 280 undergraduate students (70 from each country sampled), ranging in age from 18 to 25 years, completed 3 different questionnaires assessing their opinions and beliefs about hypnosis. Although responses to some items varied by country, there was remarkable similarity across many items suggesting that certain views and attitudes about hypnosis are not culture specific.
Hypnotically-Induced Emotional Numbing: The Roles of Hypnosis and Hypnotizability
RICHARD A. BRYANT AND AMRITA KAPUR
Abstract: This study investigated the roles of hypnotizability and hypnosis in suggested emotional numbing. Thirty-two high hypnotizable and 32 low hypnotizable participants were administered either a hypnotic or wake induction and were then presented with emotionally distressing and neutral images during a suggestion for emotional numbing or a control condition. Emotional response was indexed through self-report and EMG corrugator-muscle activity. High hypnotizable participants, in both the hypnosis and wake conditions, reported more diminished emotional responses on self-report and EMG corrugator-muscle activity than low hypnotizable participants during the emotional-numbing suggestion. These findings suggest that elevated hypnotic susceptibility, rather than hypnosis, is an important mediator of emotional numbing. The importance of individual differences in emotional numbing is discussed.
Hypnotic Conflict: A Brief Report
DAVID MALLARD AND RICHARD A. BRYANT
Abstract: Two studies investigated management of conflict in hypnosis by subtly increasing the brightness of a visual stimulus during a suggestion for hypnotic blindness to the stimulus. In Study 1, 23 high hypnotizable participants were administered a hypnotic suggestion for blindness to a projected light. For half the participants, the brightness of the light was intensified during the suggestion. Behavioral ratings and online analog-dial measurement indicated that participants reported decreased hypnotic blindness during the increased conflict condition. In Study 2, 20 participants were administered the nonexperimental procedure to investigate the impact of demand characteristics in this paradigm. Parallel findings in Studies 1 and 2 indicated that demand characteristics may explain the response to hypnotic conflict. Limitations in applying the nonexperimental procedure to this paradigm and the need for further investigation are discussed.
Intensive Hypnotherapy for Smoking Cessation: A Prospective Study1
GARY ELKINS, JOEL MARCUS, JEFF BATES, M. HASAN RAJAB, AND TERESA COOK
Abstract: This study reports on a prospective pilot trial of intensive hypnotherapy for smoking cessation. The intensive hypnotherapy involved multiple individual sessions (8 visits) over approximately 2 months, individualization of hypnotic suggestions, and a supportive therapeutic relationship. Twenty subjects were randomly assigned to either an intensive hypnotherapy condition or to a wait-list control condition. The target quitting date was 1 week after beginning treatment. Patients were evaluated for smoking cessation at the end of treatment and at Weeks 12 and 26. Self-reported abstinence was confirmed by a carbon-monoxide concentration in expired air of 8 ppm or less. The rates of point prevalence smoking cessation, as confirmed by carbon-monoxide measurements for the intensive hypnotherapy group, was 40% at the end of treatment; 60% at 12 weeks, and 40% at 26 weeks (p < .05).
Types of Suggestibility: Relationships Among Compliance, Indirect, and Direct Suggestibility
ROMUALD POLCZYK AND TOMASZ PASEK
Abstract: It is commonly believed that direct suggestibility, referring to overt influence, and indirect suggestibility, in which the intention to influence is hidden, correlate poorly. This study demonstrated that they are substantially related, provided that they tap similar areas of influence. Results of 103 students, 55 women and 48 men, were entered into regression analyses. Indirect suggestibility, as measured by the Sensory Suggestibility Scale for Groups, and compliance, measured by the Gudjonsson Compliance Scale, were predictors of direct suggestibility, assessed with the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). Spectral analyses showed that indirect suggestibility is more related to difficult tasks on the BSS, but compliance is more related to easy tasks on this scale.
“How Deeply Hypnotized Did I Get?” Predicting Self-Reported Hypnotic Depth from a Phenomenological Assessment Instrument
RONALD J. PEKALA, V. K. KUMAR, RONALD MAURER, NANCY C. ELLIOTT, AND EDWARD MOON
Abstract: Procedures for estimating hypnotic depth have been used for more than 70 years. This study predicted self-reported hypnotic depth from the phenomenological and behavioral variables of the Phenomenology of Consciousness Inventory-Hypnotic Assessment Procedure (PCI-HAP). Participants were divided into 2 groups. One group was used to generate regression equations, and the other group was used for cross-validation. Both imagery vividness during hypnosis (imagoic suggestibility) and the PCI pHGS measure of hypnotic depth (hypnoidal state) accounted for most of the variance in self-reported hypnotic depth. The above results, further supported by correlational and 3-D visual analyses, are consistent with other researchers’ observations that ratings of hypnotic depth are a function of: (a) alterations in subjective experience, and (b) the perception of responsiveness to suggestions. The findings are also congruent with J. Holroyd’s hypothesis that suggestibility and altered-state effects interact to produce hypnotic effects.
Effects of Misleading Questions and Hypnotic Memory Suggestion on Memory Reports: A Signal Detection Analysis.
ALAN SCOBORIA, GIULIANA MAZZONI, AND IRVING KIRSCH
Abstract: In 2002, the first author and colleagues reported data indicating that both hypnosis and misleading questions decreased the accuracy of memory reports and decreased “don’t know” response rates, that the effects of misleading questions were significantly greater than those of hypnosis, and that the 2 effects were additive. Using a sample of 164 undergraduate students, the present study replicated the findings that misleading questions reduce accuracy and “don’t know” responding but failed to replicate the negative effect of hypnosis on memory reports. Signal detection analysis indicated that misleading questioning produced decreased sensitivity accompanied by higher response bias, though affecting sensitivity more than producing a criterion shift.