The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 56, Number 2 - April 2008 - English
Measuring Hypnotizability: The Case For Self-Report Depth Scales And Normative Data For The Long Stanford Scale
GRAHAM F. WAGSTAFF, JON C. COLE, AND JOANA BRUNAS-WAGSTAFF
Abstract: Conventional suggestion-based tests of hypnotizability have been criticized because they confound hypnotic and nonhypnotic suggestibility. One way around this might be to measure hypnotizability in terms of differences in suggestibility before and after hypnotic induction. However, analysis of data from a 1966 classic study by Hilgard and Tart confirms that difference scores are subject to statistical and methodological problems. Simple verbal hypnotic depth scales are presented as a useful alternative. They correlate well with conventional suggestion-based measures and enable the presence of hypnosis to be indexed independently of formal hypnotic induction procedures. Criticisms of depth scales are addressed, and normative data for the Long Stanford Scale of hypnotic depth are presented, along with data lending empirical support for the construct validity of depth reports.
The Effect of Posthypnotic Suggestion, Hypnotic Suggestibility, and Goal Intentions on Adherence to Medical Instructions
CLAUDIA CARVALHO, GIULIANA MAZZONI, IRVING KIRSCH, MARIA MEO, AND MAURA SANTANDREA
Abstract: The effects of implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion were investigated in 2 studies. In Experiment 1, participants with high levels of hypnotic suggestibility were instructed to take placebo pills as part of an investigation of how to best enhance compliance with medical instruction. In Experiment 2, participants with high, medium, and low levels of hypnotic suggestibility were asked to run in place, take their pulse rate before, and send an e-mail report to the experimenter each day. Experiment 1 revealed enhanced adherence as a function of both implementation intentions and posthypnotic suggestion. Experiment 2 failed to find any significant main effects but found a significant interaction between suggestibility and the effects of posthypnotic suggestion. Posthypnotic suggestion enhanced adherence among highly suggestible participants but lowered it among low suggestibles.
Long-Term Outcome of Hypnotic Analgesia Treatment for Chronic Pain in Persons With Disabilities
MARK P. JENSEN, JOSEPH BARBER, MARISOL A. HANLEY, JOYCE M. ENGEL, JOAN M. ROMANO, DIANA D. CARDENAS,3 GEORGE H. KRAFT, AMY J. HOFFMAN, DAVID R. PATTERSON
Abstract: Data from 26 participants in a case series of hypnotic analgesia for chronic pain were examined to determine the long-term effects of hypnosis treatment. Statistically significant decreases in average daily pain intensity, relative to pretreatment values, were observed at posttreatment and at 3- and 9-month follow-up but not at 6- or 12-month follow-up. The percent of participants who reported clinically meaningful decreases in pain were 27%, 19%, 19%, and 23%, at the 3-, 6-, 9-, and 12-month follow-up points, respectively. Moreover, at 12-months posttreatment, 81% of the sample reported that they still used the self-hypnosis skills learned in treatment. Overall, the results indicate that about 20% of the sample obtained substantial and lasting long-term reductions in average daily pain following hypnosis treatment and that many more continue to use self-hypnosis up to 12 months following treatment.
Effects of Vestibular and Neck Proprioceptive Stimulation on Posture as a Function of Hypnotizability
ENRICA L. SANTARCANGELO, ELIANA SCATTINA, PAOLO ORSINI, LUCA BRUSCHINI, BRUNELLO GHELARDUCCI, AND DIEGO MANZONI
Abstract: Previous studies on the role of hypnotizability in postural control indicate that the body sway of subjects with high or low hypnotizability to hypnosis is differentially modulated by eye closure. The aim of this study was to investigate whether hypnotizability also modulates the postural response to electrical vestibular stimulation and to head rotation in nonhypnotized individuals. The centerof pressure (CoP) displacements were monitored in highs and lows standing on a stabilometric platform with closed eyes during basal conditions and electrical vestibular stimulation in 3 different positions of the head. Results showed that the CoP stimulus-locked displacements as well as the CoP mean position, area, and mean velocity were similar in highs and lows, but only in lows did the head position modulate the mean velocity. This finding might reflect a difference in sensory-motor integration between the 2 groups.
Hypnotherapy in Management of Pain and Reexperiencing of Trauma in Burn Patients
FERESHTEH SHAKIBAEI, ALI AMINI HARANDI, ALI GHOLAMREZAEI, RAHELEH SAMOEI, AND PEJMAN SALEHI
Abstract: This study examined the effects of hypnosis on both pain and reexperiencing of trauma in burn patients. Forty-four patients hospitalized for burn care were randomly assigned to either hypnotherapy or a control group. Direct and indirect hypnotic suggestions were used to reduce pain and reexperiencing of trauma. All patients received routine burn care. Pain reports were quantified by using a self-report numeric rating scale ranging from 0 to 5. The number of recalled vivid, troubling events of the trauma in 24-hour intervals was used for rating the reexperiencing of trauma. The hypnotherapy group showed significantly lower pain ratings than the control group and reported a significant reduction in pain from baseline. There was a significant reduction in trauma reexperience scores in the hypnotherapy group but not the control group. The findings support the efficacy of hypnotherapy in the management of both pain and reexperiencing of trauma in burn patients.
The Effect of Question Format on Resistance to Misleading Postevent Information and Self-Reports of Events Occurring During Hypnosis
Mitchell L. Eisen, Maka Oustinovskaya, Rose Kistorian, Danielle Y. Morgan, and Laura Mickes
Abstract: Participants were administered a standard tape-recorded version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) and then a modified version of the HGSHS:A response booklet that asked each participant to report which suggested behaviors they performed during the procedures. These response booklets were altered to include three additional suggestions not offered during the hypnotic procedures. Half the participants were administered the questions in the response booklet in the standard format (“I performed the suggested behavior” versus “I did not perform the suggested behavior”). The remaining participants were offered a third alternative to each question (“I do not remember this occurring”). As predicted, participants offered the third alternative were significantly less likely to report performing actions that were never suggested during the procedures. Further, these participants reported performing fewer suggested behaviors (i.e., reported passing fewer of the true Harvard items) than participants in the standard two-alternative condition.
Hypnotic Induction and Therapeutic Suggestions in First-Trimester Pregnancy Termination
ISABELLE MARC, PIERRE RAINVILLE, AND SYLVIE DODIN
Abstract: Several papers of interest for researchers and clinicians have recently appeared in scientific medical literature evaluating hypnosis’ efficacy in managing patients’ distress and pain during surgical procedures. In this article, following a pilot study, the authors describe the context and standardized induction procedures that they are using in an ongoing clinical trial evaluating the effect of hypnosis on acute pain and anxiety during termination of pregnancy.
Secondary Diurnal Enuresis Treated with Hypnosis: A Time-Series Design
ALEX IGLESIAS AND ADAM IGLESIAS
Abstract: A case of secondary diurnal enuresis (SDE) after a car accident was treated with hypnosis by means of the Hypnotic Trauma Narrative, an instrument created by the authors for use with children who have been exposed to traumatic events and develop either classic symptoms of posttraumatic stress disorder or manifest other psychosomatic symptoms. An ABAB time-series design with multiple replications was employed to measure the relationship of the hypnotic treatment to the dependent measure: episodes of diurnal incontinence. The findings indicated a statistically significant relationship between the degree of change from phase to phase and the treatment. Hypnosis with the Hypnotic Trauma Narrative was deemed efficacious as a method for the treatment of secondary diurnal enuresis. The patient was symptom-free at follow-up 6 months later.