The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 56, Number 4 - October 2008 - English
The Contributions of Ramón y Cajal and Other Spanish Authors to Hypnosis
JOSÉ SALA, ETZEL CARDEÑA, Mª CARMEN HOLGADO, CRISTÓBAL AÑEZ, PILAR PÉREZ, ROCÍO PERIÑÁN, AND ANTONIO CAPAFONS
Abstract: The authors review the most important Spanish contributions to hypnosis during the 19th and 20th centuries, with emphasis on the work of Santiago Ramón y Cajal, winner of the 1906 Nobel Prize in medicine. It is widely accepted that he provided a basic foundation for modern neurosciences with his work on neuronal staining and synaptic transmission. What is missing in most accounts of his work is his longstanding interest and work on hypnosis and anomalous phenomena.This article summarizes that lost legacy, discusses other Spanish hypnosis pioneers, and gives a brief overview of current hypnosis activities in Spain.
Paradoxical Hypnotic Experiences in Escaping Constraining Dilemmas: A Clinical Example
WALTER TSCHUGGUEL AND MARLENE E. HUNTER
Abstract: Deciding how to choose from opposing options often seriously impacts people’s final selections. Such constraining options are frequently associated with feelings of hopelessness, depression, or chronic pain. As an example of such situations, a model is presented with material from a single case that utilized previous contradictory experiences in the treatment of a woman patient who suffers from chronic pelvic pain. The case summarizes how previous experiences, which have been paradoxical, can serve as substrates of behavioral change, which in turn can emerge in a way that allows the patient to integrate these experiences, personally and slowly, without conscious effort.
Israeli Norms for the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A
Abstract: A Hebrew version of the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) was administered to 283 subjects. Results were compared with those obtained for the English original administered in the U.S., Canada, and Australia, as well as with versions translated into Swedish, Romanian, Italian, Finnish, Danish, Spanish and German. Mean scores were similar to the Canadian and Australian, though lower than the others. No differences were found between males and females. Pass rates for individual items were similar or lower than elsewhere. Item reliability was similar to the other non-English versions. The authors speculate that the slightly lower scores obtained may be due to the larger group of subjects present in each session. Overall, the Israeli data are congruent with the reference samples.
The Hypnotist in the Hypnosis Interaction: The Impact of First Impressions on Perceptions of Hypnotizability
SUSANNE WHITEHEAD, PATRICIA NOLLER, AND PETER W. SHEEHAN
Abstract: Hypnotist perceptions of participant cues and behaviors were investigated in an in-depth phenomenological study focusing on the influence of participant hypnotizability and hypnotist style. Two hypnotists and 124 participants (63 hypnotizable and 61 nonhypnotizable) took part. Two modifications of the Experiential Analysis Technique (EAT) were employed. One version involved a new modification where both hypnotist and participant took part together in the EAT session. The second version involved the EAT with the hypnotist alone as per an existing modification of the technique. Results extend earlier work pointing to the active, sentient nature of hypnotist involvement and highlight the particular importance of first impressions in shaping hypnotists’ perceptions of participant hypnotizability. Results point to difficulties inherent in the hypnotist role. Findings overall support devoting increased attention to the nature of hypnotists’ involvement and its implications for understanding relational processes in hypnosis.
Déjà Vu in the Laboratory: A Behavioral and Experiential Comparison of Posthypnotic Amnesia and Posthypnotic Familiarity
AKIRA R. O’CONNOR, AMANDA J. BARNIER AND ROCHELLE E. COX
Abstract: This experiment aimed to create a laboratory analogue of déjà vu. During hypnosis, 1 group of high hypnotizables completed a puzzle game and then received a posthypnotic amnesia suggestion to forget the game (PHA condition). Another group of highs were not given the game but received a posthypnotic familiarity suggestion that it would feel familiar (PHF condition). After hypnosis, all participants were given the game and described their reactions to it. Whereas 83% of participants in both conditions passed their respective suggestions, more in the PHF condition felt a sense of déjà vu. An EAT inquiry revealed that they experienced sensory fascination and confusion about the source of familiarity, akin to everyday déjà vu. These findings highlight the value of using hypnosis as a laboratory analogue of déjà vu and provide a framework for investigating clinical manifestations of this phenomenon.
Virtual Reality Hypnosis in the Treatment of Chronic Neuropathic Pain: A Case Report
BRENT J. ONEAL, DAVID R. PATTERSON, MARYAM SOLTANI, AUBRIANA TEELEY, AND MARK P. JENSEN
Abstract: This case report evaluates virtual reality hypnosis (VRH) in treating chronic neuropathic pain in a patient with a 5-year history of failed treatments. The patient participated in a 6-month trial of VHR, and her pain ratings of intensity and unpleasantness dropped on average 36% and 33%, respectively, over the course of 33 sessions. In addition, she reported both no pain and a reduction of pain for an average of 3.86 and 12.21 hours, respectively, after treatment sessions throughout the course of the VRH treatment. These reductions and the duration of treatment effects following VRH treatment were superior to those following a trial of standard hypnosis (non-VR) treatment. However, the pain reductions with VRH did not persist over long periods of time. The findings support the potential of VRH treatment for helping individuals with refractory chronic pain conditions.