The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 59, Number 2 - April 2011 - English
Enhancing Witness Memory with Techniques Derived From Hypnotic Investigative Interviewing: Focused Meditation, Eye-Closure and Context Reinstatement
GRAHAM F. WAGSTAFF, JACQUELINE M. WHEATCROFT, ANDREA M. CADDICK, LARA J. KIRBY, AND ELIZABETH LAMONT
Abstract: Due to several well-documented problems, hypnosis as a forensic interviewing tool has been largely replaced by the cognitive interview; however, the latter is problematic in time and complexity. This paper builds on previous research showing that some procedures used in traditional hypnotic forensic interviewing might still be useful in developing alternative procedures for use in investigative interviewing. Two experiments are described that include a focused meditation with eye-closure technique with similarities to conventional hypnotic induction but without the label of hypnosis. In the first, focused meditation was comparable to a context reinstatement, or revivification, technique in facilitating memory in children aged 6 to 7 without increasing errors or inflating confidence. In the second, when used in combination with context reinstatement, focused meditation was resistant to the effects of misleading information in adults. Implications are discussed.
Analysis of Electrophysiological State Patterns and Changes during Hypnosis Induction
Thilo Hinterberger, Julian Schöner, & Ulrike Halsband
Abstract: Hypnosis can be seen as a guided induction of various states of consciousness. This article details a time series analysis that visualized the electrophysiological state changes during a session as a correlate to the instructions. Sixty-four channels of EEG and peripheral physiological measures were recorded in 1 highly susceptible subject. Significant state changes occurred synchronously with specific induction instructions. Some patterns could be physiologically explained, such as sensorimotor desynchronization over the right hemispheric hand area during left arm levitation. There was a highly significant increase in broadband activity during the stepwise trance induction that may point to a deep hypnotic state. This study provides illustrated proof for the detectability of physiological state changes as correlates to different states of awareness, consciousness, or cognition during hypnosis.
Clinical use of a Novel Audio Pillow with Recorded Hypnotherapy Instructions and Music for Anxiolysis During Dental Implant Surgery: A Prospective Study
STEPHAN EITNER, BILJANA SOKOL, MANFRED WICHMANN, AND DAVID ENGELS
Abstract: A prospective, comparative study of a novel audio pillow with hypnosis text and relaxation music was conducted in 82 dental-implant surgery patients to relieve anxiety over a 6-month period. Visual analogue scales combined with the Aachen Dental Treatment Fear Inventory (AZI) questionnaire were used to quantify patients' subjective feelings of fear. Blood pressure, heart rate, and capillary oxygen partial pressure were measured before, during, and after surgery. The AZI scores decreased in the hypnotherapy group (n = 44) and increased slightly in the control group; scores were significantly different between the groups (p = .000). During surgery, the average diastolic blood pressure and heart rate decreased in the hypnotherapy group and increased in controls. Thus, this audio pillow with relaxation music showed anxiolytic effects in patients during dental implantation procedures.
Hypnotic Susceptibility, Sleepiness, and Subjective Experience
LEVENTE MÓRÓ,VALDAS NOREIKA, ANTTI REVONSUO, AND SAKARI KALLIO
Abstract: The relationships between hypnotic susceptibility, sleepiness, and the subjective experience of hypnotic suggestions were investigated in 90 participants. Scores from the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility Form A (HGSHS:A), the Karolinska Sleepiness Scale (KSS), the Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS), the Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), and our self-developed Questionnaire on Subjective Hypnotic Experiences (QSHE) were analyzed. Findings show that hypnotic susceptibility correlates with both habitual daytime sleepiness and instantaneous sleepiness after the hypnotic procedure. Results also indicate that subjective self-evaluation of responses to hypnotic suggestions may be a useful tool in some cases when comparing with other subjectively rated scales, such as those concerning sleepiness.
The Relationship Between Hypnotizability, Internal Imagery and Efficiency of Neurolinguistic Programming
ANNA V. KIRENSKAYA, VLADIMIR Y. NOVOTOTSKY-VLASOV, ANDREY N. CHISTYAKOV,AND VYACHESLAV M. ZVONIKOV
Abstract: Subjective scoring and autonomic variables (heart rate, skin conduction span) were used to verify the reality of inner experience during recollection of emotionally neutral, positive, and negative past events in 19 high (HH) and 12 low (LH) hypnotizable subjects in hypnotic and nonhypnotic experimental sessions. Also, the influence of hypnotizability on the effectiveness of imagery-based neurolinguistic programming (NLP) technique was evaluated. Results demonstrated that subjective scores of image vividness and emotional intensity were significantly higher in the HH subjects compared to LH in both sessions. The past-events recollection was followed by increased autonomic activity only in the HH subjects. The NLP procedure was followed by decreased negative emotional intensity in both groups, but autonomic activity decline was observed in the HH subjects and not in the LH.
Hypnosis in the Treatment of Morgellons Disease: A Case Study
ASHLEY M. GARTNER, SARA L. DOLAN, MATTHEW S. STANFORD, AND GARY R. ELKINS
Abstract: Morgellons Disease is a condition involving painful skin lesions, fibrous growths protruding from the skin, and subcutaneous stinging and burning sensations, along with symptoms of anxiety, depression, fatigue, and memory and attention deficits. The etiological and physiological bases of these symptoms are unclear, making the diagnosis controversial and challenging to treat. There are currently no established treatments for Morgellons Disease. The following case example depicts treatment of a woman with Morgellons Disease using hypnotherapy. Data from this case example suggest that hypnotherapy is a promising intervention for the physical and psychological symptoms associated with Morgellons Disease.
Visual Identification of Haptically Explored Objects In High and Low Hypnotizable Subjects
ELEONORA CASTELLANI, GIANCARLO CARLI, AND ENRICA LAURA SANTARCANGELO
Abstract: Hypnotizability is associated with peculiar characteristics of sensorimotor integration, imaginal abilities, and preferences in the sensory modality of imagery. The visual recognition of haptically explored objects involves an interaction among these processes and is a proper tool to investigate their possible hypnotizability-related modulation. Sixteen high hypnotizables and 16 lows participated in the study. Higher frequencies of correct recognition (RF) were observed in highs. RF improved across both groups. As an effect of learning, shorter recognition times (RT) were found in males among highs and in females among lows. The findings are consistent with the literature suggesting that hypnotizability levels may be associated with specific modes of sensory integration and/or imagery.
Translation, Adaptation, and Validation of the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale in Puerto Rico
YAZMÍN DEYNES-EXCLUSA, SEAN K. SAYERS-MONTALVO, AND ALFONSO MARTÍNEZ-TABOAS
Abstract: The only hypnotizability scale that has been translated and validated for the Puerto Rican population is the Barber Suggestibility Scale (BSS). In this article, the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale (SHCS) was translated and validated for this population. The translated SHCS ("Escala Stanford de Hipnosis Clínica," ESHC) was administered individually to 100 Puerto Rican college students. There were no significant differences found between the norms of the original SHCS samples and the Spanish version of the SHCS. Both samples showed similar distributions. The Spanish version's internal reliability as well as item discrimination index was adequate. The authors conclude that the ESHC is an adequate instrument to measure hypnotizability in the Puerto Rican population.