The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 61, Number 1 - January 2012- English
Modeling Erotomania Delusion in the Laboratory With Hypnosis
JILLIAN E. ATTEWELL, ROCHELLE E. COX, AMANDA J. BARNIER, AND ROBYN LANGDON
Abstract: Erotomania is the delusional belief that one is loved from afar by another person (the target). This study used hypnosis as a novel cognitive neuropsychological research tool to model erotomania. The authors developed 2 versions of a hypnotic erotomania suggestion and tested their impact by asking subjects to recall and interpret a story featuring ambiguous scenarios. They also challenged the delusion by asking subjects to justify their beliefs. The hypnotic erotomania suggestions successfully recreated the features of the clinical delusion for many high hypnotizable subjects. They believed that the target loved them, interpreted ambiguous information consistent with this belief, and confabulated evidence in service of their delusion. Some also resisted all challenges to their delusion. These features are strikingly similar to clinical cases and highlight the value of using hypnosis to model clinical delusions. The authors also discuss some limitations of this approach.
EEG sLORETA Functional Imaging During Hypnotic Arm Levitation and Voluntary Arm Lifting
ETZEL CARDEÑA,DIETRICH LEHMANN, PASCAL L. FABER, PETER JÖNSSON, PATRICIA MILZ, ROBERTO D. PASCUAL-MARQUI, AND KIEKO KOCHI.
Abstract: This study (N = 37 with high, medium, and low hypnotizables) evaluated depth reports and EEG activity during both voluntary and hypnotically induced left-arm lifting with sLORETA functional neuroimaging. The hypnotic condition was associated with higher activity in fast EEG frequencies in anterior regions and slow EEG frequencies in central-parietal regions, all left-sided. The voluntary condition was associated with fast frequency activity in right-hemisphere central-parietal regions and slow frequency activity in left anterior regions. Hypnotizability did not have a significant effect on EEG activity, but hypnotic depth correlated with left hemisphere increased anterior slow EEG and decreased central fast EEG activity. Hypnosis had a minimal effect on depth reports among lows, a moderate one among mediums, and a large one among highs. Because only left-arm data were available, the full role of the hemispheres remains to be clarified.
Hypnotizability-Related Differences in Written Language
RITA MARINELLI, REMO BINDI, SIMONE MARCHI, ELEONORA CASTELLANI, GIANCARLO CARLI, AND ENRICA L. SANTARCANGELO
Abstract: The study analyzed the writing products of subjects with high (highs) and low (lows) hypnotizability. The participants were asked to write short texts in response to highly imaginative scenarios in standard conditions. The texts were processed through computerized and manual methods. The results showed that the highs' texts were more sophisticated due to a higher number of abstract nouns; more intense and imaginative due to a larger number of similes, metaphors, and onomatopoeias; and less detailed due to a higher nouns-to-adjectives ratio. The differences in the use of abstract nouns and highly imageable expressions are discussed in relation to the preeminent left hemisphere activity of highs during wakefulness and to a possibly different involvement of the precuneus, which is involved in hypnotic phenomena.
The Cognitive Demands of Hypnotic Response
MIRIAM WYZENBEEK AND RICHARD A. BRYANT
Abstractr: This study tests the proposal that hypnotic responding is effortless. The authors compared the responses of high and low hypnotizable participants (N = 70) in and out of hypnosis on a dual task paradigm in which they were required to maintain hypnotic blindness during presentation of visual stimuli of varying salience intensities while simultaneously completing a secondary task. Whereas high hypnotizable participants in both hypnosis and wake conditions reported comparable levels of conviction in the hallucination suggestion, hypnotized highs performed poorer on the secondary task when the stimulus was present. Performance on the secondary task deteriorated when the visual stimulus was intensified. These findings contradict the notion that hypnotic response is not demanding on cognitive resources and suggest that increased effort is required to resolve the extent of conflict between reality and suggestion.
Cerebral Blood Flow Evaluation During Hypnotic State with Transcranial Doppler Sonography
TURAN USLU, ATILLA ILHAN, OSMAN OZCAN, DILEK TURKOGLU, ALEVTINA ERSOY, AND EMINE CELIK
Abstract: Cerebral blood flow was measured in normal waking (alert relaxed mental imagery) and hypnotic states. Mean flow velocity (Vm) in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) was significantly increased in hypnosis (Condition II) from Condition I (5 minutes before hypnotic induction). Vm decreased in Condition III (hypnotic imagination). After hypnosis, Vm values returned to baseline. Pulsatility index and resistive index values showed significant variations during sonographic monitoring between Conditions I and IV (5 minutes after the completion of hypnosis). Both values were significantly higher in Condition I than IV. These findings show that hypnotic status can modulate cerebral blood flow.
Electromyographic investigation of hypnotic arm levitation: Differences between voluntary arm elevation and involuntary arm levitation
BURKHARD PETER, PHILIPP SCHIEBLER, CHRISTOPH PIESBERGEN, AND MARIA HAGL
Abstract: Thirty-three volunteers were randomly exposed to 3 conditions: hypnotic arm levitation, holding up the arm voluntarily without hypnosis, and imagined arm lifting without hypnosis. Trapezius, deltoid, extensor digitorum, flexor digitorum profundus, biceps brachii, and triceps brachii muscles were measured. Strain and muscle activity during lifting and holding up the right arm for 3 minutes were used as dependent variables. During hypnotic arm levitation, the total muscle activity was lower (p < .001) than during holding it up voluntarily (p < .01); the activity in the deltoid was 27% lower. Without hypnosis, the muscle activity showed a significant correlation with strain. However, there was no such correlation in the hypnotic condition. Apparently, it is possible to reduce strain and objectively measure muscle activity in an uplifted arm through hypnotic arm levitation.
Hypnotherapy Intervention for Loin Pain Hematuria: Case Study
GARY R. ELKINS, LAUREN L. KOEP, AND CASSIE E. KENDRICK
Abstract: Loin pain hematuria is characterized by chronic loin pain, hematuria, and dysuria. There are no known effective treatments for loin pain hematuria and longer-term use of analgesics and surgical options are often ineffective or associated with negative side effects. This article reports on a 17-year-old female patient diagnosed with loin pain hematuria who presented with unilateral, uncontrolled loin pain following numerous unsuccessful attempts at controlling her symptoms with traditional medical interventions—including antibiotics, opioids, and renal denervation. The patient received 8 sessions of hypnotherapy. Baseline, end-point, and follow-up measures administered included the General Health Questionnaire, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, McGill Pain Questionnaire, Pain Discomfort Scale, and visual analogue measures of pain, academic interference, and social interference. At follow-up, results indicated clinically significant decreases in pain, anxiety, and depression with nearly complete remission of presenting symptoms.
Herbert Spiegel, M.D., a Man for All Seasons: Early Personal And Professional Development, 1914-1946
EDWARD J. FRISCHHOLZ AND LINDSAY E. NICHOLS
Abstract: Herbert Spiegel, M.D., was a pioneer in American psychiatry and the field of hypnosis, which he first started using as an army psychiatrist posted at Fort Meade, Md. He served as a battalion surgeon during the invasion of North Africa and later in the Tunisian campaign. On the battlefield, Spiegel used hypnosis for quick symptom resolution and pain control. He was wounded in action on May 7, 1943, and was awarded a Purple Heart for his courage and bravery. When Spiegel was evacuated back to America, he began writing about short-term treatment strategies based on cognitive restructuring, hypnosis, and other clinical techniques. This article details his early life and career.