The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 50, Number 1 - January 2002 - English
Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales: Are the mean scores increasing?
Grant Benham, Norris Smith, and Michael R. Nash
Abstract: The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C), developed and named 37 years ago, is arguably the "gold standard" of hypnotic susceptibility scales. However, it has been the impression of several researchers that means obtained on the SHSS:C are higher now than in previous years. The authors comprehensively review studies using the SHSS:C over a 4-decade period. The findings demonstrate a significant linear trend between year and SHSS:C scores, with higher obtained means in more recent work. A similar analysis of research with the Harvard Group Scale of Hypnotic Susceptibility, Form A (HGSHS:A) is also reported. Although the mechanisms underlying this trend can only be speculated upon at present, these findings underscore the importance of using local control groups in research on hypnotizability.
Brief Presurgery Hypnosis Reduces Distress and Pain in Excisional Breast Biopsy Patients.
Guy H. Montgomery, Christina R. Weltz, Megan Seltz, and Dana H. Bovbjerg
Abstract: Each year, hundreds of thousands of women undergo excisional breast biopsies for definitive diagnosis. Not only do these patients experience pain associated with the procedure they also endure distress associated with the threat of cancer. Hypnosis has been demonstrated as effective for controlling patientsÕ pain in other surgical settings, but breast surgery patients have received little attention. To determine the impact of brief presurgical hypnosis on these patientsÕ postsurgery pain and distress and to explore possible mediating mechanisms of these effects, 20 excisional breast biopsy patients were randomly assigned to a hypnosis or control group (standard care). Hypnosis reduced postsurgery pain and distress. Initial evidence suggested that the effects of hypnosis were mediated by presurgery expectations.
Hypnotizability and Trauma Symptoms After Burn Injury
Katherine N. DuHamel, JoAnn Difede, Frederick Foley, and Marcia Greenleaf
Abstract: This study investigated the association of trauma symptoms and hypnotizability in 43 hospitalized survivors of burn injury. Three to 17 days after burn injury, participants rated the frequency of intrusive and avoidance symptoms and were interviewed with the posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) module of the structured clinical interview for DSM-III-R (SCID). The Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) was also administered at the postburn, hospital stage of recovery. Results indicated that when participants were divided into low, mid-range and high hypnotizability categories, high hypnotizability was associated with more intrusive, avoidance, and arousal symptoms. Although causal relations cannot be assessed in this cross-sectional study, these results suggest that as compared to the low and mid-range categories, high hypnotizables may experience a greater frequency of trauma symptoms after burn injury.
Motor imagery during hypnotic arm paralysis in high and low hypnotizable subjects
Karin Roelofs, Cees A. L. Hoogduin, and Ger P. J. Keijsers
Abstract: Previous research suggests that conversion disordered patients with hand/arm paralysis exhibit slowed reaction times for mental hand-rotation tasks that correspond to their affected arm when the tasks are explicitly instructed and not when they are implicitly cued. Because of the many similarities between hypnotic phenomena and conversion symptoms, the authors tested whether similar motor imagery impairment would occur among normal high hypnotizable (HH) subjects when paralysis is suggested. Nine HHs and eight low hypnotizable (LH) subjects were administered an implicit and an explicit mental hand rotation task during hypnotically suggested paralysis of the right arm. On the implicit task, there were no significant reaction time (RT) differences between HHs and LHs. On the explicit task, only HHs showed a significantly larger RT increase per degree of rotation with the paralyzed arm, compared to the normal arm. These preliminary findings suggest that the motor imagery impairment observed in conversion paralysis can be induced in HHs using hypnosis.
Cultural Scripts, Memories of Childhood Abuse, and Multiple Identities: A Study of Role-Played Enactments
Jane Stafford and Steven Jay Lynn
Abstract: This study compared the reports of satanic, sexual, and physical abuse of persons instructed to role-play either dissociative identity disorder (DID, n = 33), major depression (n = 33), or a college student who experienced minor adjustment problems ("normal," n = 33) across a number of trials that included role-played hypnosis. As hypothesized, more of the participants who were asked to role-play DID reported at least one instance of satanic ritual abuse and sexual abuse, compared with those who role-played depression or a college student with minor adjustment problems. DID role-players reported more incidents of sexual abuse and more severe physical and sexual abuse than did the major depression role-players. Further, the DID role-players differed from the "normal" role-players on all the measures of frequency and severity of physical and sexual abuse. Participants in all groups reported more frequent and severe incidents of physical abuse after role-played hypnosis than they did prior to it.