The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 49, Number 4 - October 2001 - English
Posthypnotic Amnesia for Material Learned Before or During Hypnosis: Explicit and Implicit Memory Effects
Amanda J. Barnier, Richard A. Bryant, and Suzanne Briscoe
Abstract: This article focuses on dissociations between explicit and implicit expressions of memory during posthypnotic amnesia (PHA). Despite evidence of such dissociations, experimental design in this area has not always been consistent with contemporary memory research. Within a paradigm that aimed for conceptual and methodological clarity, we presented 40 high and 38 low hypnotizable individuals with a word list either before or during hypnosis, gave them a PHA suggestion for the word list, and tested them on explicit and implicit memory tasks. In the absence of conscious recollection, highs showed equivalent levels of (perceptual and semantic) priming to lows. However, when analysis focused only on those highs who remained amnesic after the implicit memory tasks, we confirmed perceptual, but not semantic, priming. These findings highlight the impact of methodological choices on theoretical interpretations of memory performance following a suggestion for PHA.
The Hypnotic Dreams of Healthy Children and Children With Cancer: A Quantitative and Qualitative Analysis
Samuel LeBaron, Debra Fanurik, and Lonnie K. Zeltzer
Abstract: In this study, the Stanford Hypnotic Clinical Scale for Children was administered to 52 healthy children and 47 children and adolescents with cancer. Responses to the dream item of this scale were analyzed for the type and detail of imagery. The hypnotizability scores of both groups were similar. However, children with cancer reported more pleasant than unpleasant fantasy in their hypnotic dreams, and their dream reports tended to contain less fantasy and detail overall. Rescoring the dream item based on extent of fantasy and detail resulted in a lower pass rate for that item, especially for children with cancer. Regardless of health status, younger children experienced less self-involvement in their hypnotic dreams compared to older children.
Frontal Lobe Contributions to Hypnotic Susceptibility: A Neuropsychological Screening of Executive Functioning
Deane Aikins and William J. Ray
Abstract: Current theory on the cognitive mechanisms of hypnotic experience suggests that hypnosis is mediated by a dissociation between contention-scheduling mechanisms and a supervisory attention system (Bowers, 1992; Woody & Bowers, 1994). This theory is based on neuropsychological research with frontal lobe dysfunction patients, who show performance deficits similar in executive functioning to hypnotized individuals. To test an extension of this theory, high hypnotically susceptible (n = 9) and low hypnotically susceptible (n = 7) participants were given 4 tests of executive functioning. In a baseline condition, high susceptible individuals performed significantly better on 1 of the 4 tests (the Wisconsin Card Sorting Test). The role of increased cognitive flexibility in hypnotic susceptibility is considered as a possible component of the dissociated control model of hypnosis.
Hypnotic Color Blindness and Performance on the Stroop Test
David Mallard and Richard A. Bryant
Abstract: A suggestion for hypnotic color blindness was investigated by administering a reverse Stroop color-naming task. Prior to the suggestion for color blindness, participants learned associations between color names and shapes. Following the color blindness suggestion, participants were required to name the shapes when they appeared in colors that were either congruent or incongruent with the learned associations. The 18 high hypnotizable participants who passed the suggestion were slower to name (a) shapes in which the color name was incongruent with the color in which it was printed, (b) "unseen" rather than "seen" shapes, and (c) color-incongruent shapes that were printed in the color in which they were "color blind." These patterns are discussed in terms of potential cognitive and social mechanisms that may mediate responses to hypnotic color blindness.
Being "the Other Therapist": The varieties of Adjunctive Experience with Hypnosis
Sharon B. Spiegel and Stephen Kahn
Abstract: Clinicians who utilize hypnosis in their practices are frequently approached with requests to participate in the care of patients who are currently in treatment with a primary therapist. Surprisingly, a review of the literature indicated that no research has been done on this common practice. This paper provides a discussion of some of the important issues as well as the variables to consider in deciding whether to enter into this arrangement. It will serve as a starting point in generating further research on this crucial topic.
Matching Hypnotic Interventions to Pathology Types: A working model for expressive psychotherapies
Michel F. M. Boyer
Abstract: This paper identifies Kohut's typology of "Guilty Man" and "Tragic Man" as a clinically useful construct in outpatient psychotherapy. The author notes that an expressive approach focused on ambivalent conflict is indicated for the "Guilty Man," and a restructuring expressive approach is indicated for the "Tragic Man." A hypnosis technique is identified for use with each of these two approaches: the Door of Forgiveness technique (primarily for conflict-focused therapies), and the Conference Technique (for restructuring therapies).