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April 2001 - English PDF Print E-mail

The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis
Volume 49, Number 2 - April 2001 - English


Indexing the Experience of Sex Change in Hypnosis and Imagination
Kevin M. McConkey, Amos Szeps, and Amanda J. Barnier

Abstract: The authors suggested a change of sex to high hypnotizable participants in hypnosis and imagination conditions and indexed the subjects' experiences with a continuous, concurrent behavioral measure that involved them turning a dial to indicate changes in the strength of the suggested effect. In addition, the researchers indexed the participants' experiences through retrospective ratings of realness, involuntariness, and active thinking. The dial rating showed that the onset of the experience was more rapid for hypnotic than for imagination participants. Moreover, there were differences in the relationship between dial ratings and retrospective ratings across the conditions as well as across the suggestion, test, and cancellation phases of the item. The findings are discussed in terms of how the dial method provides a better understanding of suggested sex change as well as a better understanding of the private experience of hypnosis and imagination.


Mary Jo Peebles-Kleiger

ABSTRACT: The relationship between psychoanalysis and hypnosis is presented in three parts: past, present, and future. First, the parallel developments in psychoanalysis and hypnosis over the past 100 years are summarized. Four major theoretical evolutions in psychoanalysis (drive theory, ego psychology, object relations theory, and self psychology) are described, with their corresponding influences on the practice of psychoanalytically informed hypnosis. Second, four contemporary movements in psychoanalysis are enumerated (postmodernism, spontaneity, pluralism, and integrationism), with commentary on these movements' likely impact on the current and future practice of hypnosis. Finally, the impact of shrinking mental health dollars on the practice of psychoanalysis and psychoanalytically informed treatments is presented. Hypnosis is offered as uniquely positioned, with its history of multi-theoretically informed, brief interventions, grounded in research and clinical practice, to provide psychoanalysis with a life raft into the next 100 years of practice.


The Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale Form C: Normative data of a Dutch student sample.
G.W.B. N=E4ring, K. Roelofs, & C.A.L. Hoogduin

Abstract: Norms for the Dutch language version of the Stanford Hypnotic Suggestibility Scale Form C (SHSS:C; Weitzenhoffer & Hilgard, 1962) are presented. These norms are based upon a sample of 135 students at a Dutch university. Generally, the psychometric properties of the Dutch version of the SHSS:C are similar to other language versions. However, the mean score was somewhat lower than that found in the original norming studies at Stanford University.


Sakari Kallio, Antti Revonsuo, Heikki HEinen, Jaana Markela, and John Gruzelier

Neuropsychological frontal lobe tests were used to compare individuals with high (n =3D 8) and low hypnotizability (n =3D 9) during both baseline and hypnosis conditions. Subjects were assessed on two hypnotic susceptibility scales and a test battery that included the Stroop test, word fluency to letter and semantic designated categories, tests of simple reaction time and choice reaction time, a vigilance task, and a questionnaire of 40 self-descriptive statements of focused attention. Effects for hypnotic susceptibility and hypnosis/control conditions were scant across the dependent variables. High hypnotizables scored higher on the questionnaire at baseline and their performance on the word fluency task during hypnosis was reduced to a greater extent than lows. Findings indicate that although the frontal area may play an important role regarding hypnotic response, the mechanisms seem to be much more complex than mere general inhibition.


Taru Kinnunen, Harold S. Zamansky, and Beth L. Nordstrom

Abstract: To examine the role of compliance in responses to hypnotic suggestions, the authors administered a number of suggestions in the standard hypnotic manner and, also, with urging to comply. Participants' overt behavioral responses were noted, and they were questioned about their subjective experience of the suggestions, with electrodermal skin conductance responses providing a measure of the truthfulness of their reports. Results indicated that, although behavioral and verbal responses were consistent with the hypnotic suggestions under both instructional sets, responses in the standard hypnotic setting appeared to be experienced as genuine. That is, reports of subjective experiences met the criterion for truthfulness, whereas reports of suggested experiences administered with urging to comply did not meet the criterion for truthfulness.


The Effect of Rapid Induction Analgesia on Subjective Pain Ratings and Pain Tolerance
Bernadette R. Wright and Peter D. Drummond

Abstract: The effect of Rapid Induction Analgesia (RIA) on pain tolerance and ratings of mechanically induced pain in the pain-sensitized forearm was investigated in 58 undergraduates. Posthypnotic suggestions of relaxation and analgesia did not influence pain ratings or tolerance, but relaxation ratings increased after RIA. When suggestions for analgesia were made throughout pain testing, ratings of pain unpleasantness at the pain tolerance point decreased more in the RIA group than in the attention control group. However, RIA did not influence pain threshold or tolerance. It was concluded that RIA was more effective in reducing subjective reports of pain (particularly the affective component) than in altering pain tolerance, and that maintenance of hypnotic suggestions was more effective than posthypnotic suggestions of comfort and relaxation in alleviating the affective component of pain.

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