In Memoriam: Assen Alladin, 1948-2017

The community of hypnosis has lost another of its great leaders. Assen Alladin, Ph.D., R.Psych., died on November 24, 2017. His family, his friends, his students, his patients, his readers, and his colleagues will mourn his absence.

Assen Alladin was born on the Island of Mauritius and educated in England. He initially trained as a psychiatric nurse and social worker and then trained in clinical psychology. He worked as a clinical psychologist in England for 10 years and moved to Canada in 1990. He worked at the Waterford Hospital, St. John’s, Newfoundland, and moved to Calgary in 1993. He worked 2 years as a psychologist with the Calgary Police Service and then spent the years from 1995 to 2013 at the Foothills Medical Centre, Calgary. After 2013, he worked in a full-time private practice in Calgary, Alberta.

Dr. Alladin also served as a professor, a scholar, and an editorial consultant to several professional journals. Until the time of his death, he was an adjunct associate professor in the Department of Psychiatry, University of Calgary Medical School. There he taught and supervised psychiatry residents. He provided training in clinical hypnosis and cognitive hypnotherapy locally, nationally, and internationally.

Honors

Dr. Alladin was a Fellow of the Royal Society of Medicine, a Fellow of the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis – Alberta Society, and an Associate Fellow of the British Psychological Society. His study of cognitive hypnotherapy with depression won the best research paper from Division 30 of the American Psychological Association in 2005.

Professional Affiliations/Memberships in Professional & Learned Societies

Dr. Alladin maintained memberships in the American Psychological Association, the Canadian Psychological Association, the College of Alberta Psychologists, the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis, the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis, the International Society of Hypnosis, the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis, and the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis – Alberta Society.

Professional Offices

Dr. Alladin was immediate past president of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis at the time of his death. He served as president of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis in 2016-2017, president of the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis – Alberta Society from 2007-2009, education chair for the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis in 2007, president of the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis – Alberta Society from 2004-2007, and held many other positions of leadership in North American hypnosis.

Research and Publications

Apart from his leadership in hypnosis organizations, Dr. Alladin will be long remembered for his research and publications on hypnosis, especially on the application of hypnosis to anxiety disorders and depression. His books include: Integrative Cognitive Behavioral Therapy for Anxiety Disorders (Wiley, 2016), Hynotherapy Explained (CRC Press, 2016), Cognitive Hypnotherapy: An Integrated Approach for the Treatment of Emotional Disorders (Wiley, 2008), and Handbook of Cognitive Hypnotherapy for Depression (Lippincott, Williams, and Wilkins, 2007). He authored more than 25 peer-reviewed journal articles and book chapters. He was also a generous presenter and trainer, regularly participating in the programs of ASCH, SCEH, ISH, Division 30 (APA), and the Canadian Federation of Clinical Hypnosis.

Personal Impact

In addition to the honors, publications, and offices held by Dr. Alladin, he will be remembered as a warm, caring, and generous human being. His influence on a generation of hypnosis professionals cannot be overestimated. His quiet, kind manner helped countless professionals accept hypnosis as a respectable field for study, and his gentle leadership and generous encouragement of those around him will be remembered by all.

In Memoriam: E. Thomas Dowd, Ph.D., ABPP 1938-2018

The community of hypnosis has lost a great leader in advancing cognitive hypnotherapy and evidence based clinical practice of hypnosis. Edmund Thomas Dowd, born in Minneapolis on November 19, 1938, died suddenly at his home on Saturday, January 6, 2018. Tom Dowd spent the first 31 years of his life in Minnesota, where he met his wife Therese, had his two children, and earned his Ph.D. in Counseling Psychology from the University of Minnesota. Tom spent the majority of his professional career as an academician and traveled around the world presenting and training others in hypnosis and cognitive psychotherapy. Tom was a tenured Professor in the Department of Psychology at Kent State University where he had served as Director of the doctoral program in Counseling Psychology, Department Chair, and the Chair of the University Faculty Senate. He taught courses in Professional and Ethical Issues in Clinical Psychology, Clinical Psychology Practicum, Introduction to Psychotherapy, and Psychological Interventions. He served as Editor of the Journal of Cognitive Psychotherapy: An International Quarterly and had served as Director of the Counseling Psychology Programs at both the University of Nebraska and at Kent State University.

In addition, Tom was the author of nearly 200 publications and 7 books including the ground-breaking book, Cognitive Hypnotherapy (Dowd, 2000). The model developed by Dr. Dowd combined concepts and techniques drawn from the work of Aaron T. Beck and Milton H. Erickson along with concepts from theories of human cognition and implicit knowledge. His other books included: Case Studies in Hypnotherapy (Dowd & Healy, 1986), Hypnotherapy: A Modern Approach (Golden, Dowd, & Freidberg, 1987); Clinical Advances in Cognitive Psychotherapy (Leahy & Dowd, 2002); and The Psychologies in Religion: Working with Religious Clients (Dowd & Nielsen, 2006 ).

Throughout his life Tom was always willing to be of service. He served on numerous boards and committees locally, nationally, and internationally. At the time of his death he was serving as the President of the Society for Psychological Hypnosis (American Psychological Association, Division 30). In addition, he had served as President and on the Board of Directors of the American Board of Behavioral and Cognitive Psychology (ABCT), a specialty of the American Board of Professional Psychology (ABPP). In 2016 he was presented the Russell J. Bent Award for Distinguished Service and Contributions to the American Board of Professional Psychology.

Upon retirement as a Professor from Kent State University, he transitioned exclusively into private practice where he was a Senior Psychologist at Rainier Behavioral Health in Tacoma, Washington and Professor Emeritus of Psychological Sciences at Kent State University in Kent, Ohio, USA. Tom maintained an active private practice and continued to see clients and have a tremendous impact on healing and helping others until his death. He traveled around the world conducting workshops on cognitive-behavioral therapy and cognitive hypnotherapy.

In his personal life, Tom was known as a compassionate, quirky, adventurous, wise, and sensitive person. He was generous to the core and always willing to help others. He was committed to supporting his family; he and his wife Therese moved to Tacoma, Washington in 2014 to be close to their children and their families. He loved to live life to the fullest, enjoyed a good glass of wine, was an aficionado of opera and classical music – he could literally “name that tune” for almost any classical music piece in five notes or less. He was both open-hearted and open-minded and as a voracious reader was committed to life-long learning. He had a dedicated meditation practice, enjoyed spending time in his garden, and loved exploring new places in the Pacific Northwest and around the world. His family, his friends, his students, his patients, his readers, and his colleagues will mourn his absence.

The Effect of a Hypnotic-Based Animated Video on Stress and Pain Reduction in Pediatric Surgery

Presurgical stress and its negative influences on postsurgical recovery and pain are well documented in the medical literature. Hence, the reduction of stress is advisable. The present study aimed to reduce stress using a hypnotic-based animated video. Thirty children aged 3 to 16 years hospitalized for ambulatory surgery for undescended testes or umbilical/inguinal hernia were recruited for the study. They watched the video 1 time prior to surgery in the presence of their parents and reported their anxiety and pain pre- and post video watching on a visual analogue scale. The results show a statistically significant reduction in both anxiety and pain. The article describes the structuring of the animated video and includes links to English, Hebrew, and Arabic versions of it.

Effects of Conversational Hypnosis on Relative Parasympathetic Tone and Patient Comfort during Axillary Brachial Plexus Blocks for Ambulatory Upper Limb Surgery: A Quasiexperimental Pilot Study

This two-center quasiexperimental pilot study was to determine the effect of conversational hypnosis on patient comfort and parasympathetic tone, which may represent a quantitative measure of hypnotic depth, during regional anesthesia. The patients received conversational hypnosis in one center and oral premedication in the other. The patients’ subjective comfort (0-10 rating scale) and objective parasympathetic tone, as assessed by the Analgesia/Nociception Index (ANI), were measured before and after regional anesthesia. The parasympathetic tone and comfort scores evidenced a significantly greater increase in the hypnosis patients than in controls. These findings suggest that using conversational hypnosis during regional anesthesia may be followed by a subjective increase in patient comfort and an objective increase in parasympathetic tone, monitored by ANI.

Revisiting the Safe Place: Method and Regulatory Aspects in Psychotherapy when Easing Allostatic Overload in Traumatized Patients

Safe-place inductions are considered important altered states of consciousness (ASC) to be (re)installed during trauma-informed psychotherapy. Coregulation aimed at changing implicit relational knowing and increasing integration and coherence through relational work and hypnotic techniques is crucial, as clients’ abilities to self-soothe and regulate have become seriously impaired. Thus, resource-oriented metaphors as inner strength imagery is advocated. Also, methods such as creative-arts therapy and neurofeedback will induce ASCs, as most methods used with complex traumatized clients, due to their high hypnotizability. When positive or soothing imagery or relationally held suggestions for changed attentional focus are added to both psychodynamic psychotherapy and CBT, a hetero-hypnosis will be induced—a prerequisite for phase-specific trauma therapy aimed at changing inner schemas and scripts.

Enhancing Implicit Learning with Posthypnotic Suggestion: An ERP Study

Can posthypnotic suggestion (PHS) enhance cognitive abilities? The authors tested behaviorally and with event-related potentials (ERP) if sequential learning (SL), the ability to learn statistical regularities, can be enhanced with PHS. Thirty adults were assessed with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale (Form C) and an auditory SL task. Before this task, half the sample received a PHS to enhance SL, and the other half received the same suggestion under normal waking state. Response times and ERPs indicated a strong effect of PHS. Compared to the control group, PHS inverted, attenuated, or left unaffected the response time SL effect in low, medium, and high hypnotizability participants, respectively. These results suggest that PHS cannot be used to enhance SL.

The Effect of Hypnosis on Adherence to Antituberculosis Drugs Using the Health Belief Model

An RCT on the efficacy of hypnosis in improving adherence to antituberculosis treatment using the Health Belief Model (HBM). Sixty study subjects were sampled at random from tuberculosis patients who visited the Center for Pulmonary Community Health in Solo, Indonesia. Hypnotherapy with posthypnotic suggestions was delivered once a week over 6 months. The data on pretested 7 HBM constructs were analyzed using t test and path analysis. Hypnotherapy had a positive effect on perceived susceptibility, seriousness, threat, benefit, and self-efficacy. It indirectly had a positive effect on adherence. Hypnotherapy had a negative effect on perceived barrier. This study supports the hypothesis that hypnotherapy effectively improves adherence to tuberculosis treatment, by enhancing health-related perception and beliefs in the HBM.

Editorial, International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis

The International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (IJCEH) is the leading international journal with a focus on hypnosis research and practice. Under the editorship of Dr. Arreed Barabasz the journal has grown in quality and expanded in readership. It is an honor and a privilege to begin my term as Editor of the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. The present (January, 2018) issue and the following issues of April and July were prepared under the editorship of Dr. Barabasz. This is my opportunity to express my sincere thanks to Dr. Barabasz for making the transition to my editorship as smooth as possible and for his support. As the new Editor, I will endeavor to continue the growth, high quality articles, increasing impact factor, and relevance to the international community of hypnosis practitioners and dedicated researchers. The journal will actively recruit quality submissions on an international scale and seek to advance scientific knowledge and inform clinical practice.

Hypnosis research has already provided much empirical support for applications of hypnosis interventions in multiple areas including medical, dental, and psychological disorders. Also, well validated scales now exist for measurement of hypnotizability and there is an expanding body of scientific knowledge regarding the potential cognitive, social, interpersonal, and neurophysiological mediators of hypnosis. Further, researchers and clinicians have investigated the potential of integration of hypnosis with cognitive-behavioral, psychodynamic, interpersonal, and mindfulness (third wave) interventions. Hypnosis is now recognized by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) as an area for further research and funding. All of these achievements speak positively to the important future of hypnosis in science and practice.

The journal will continue with a strong and engaged Board of Editorial Consultants and will expand upon this to bring in additional editorial consultants with identified areas of expertise Quality contributions will be sought and welcomed from various perspectives and including theoretical papers, experimental designs, exploratory studies, randomized clinical trials, and well-designed case studies. Competent clinical practice is informed by the best available research and research that is clinically relevant is of most benefit. The journal will continue to build on these foundational concepts.

Hypnosis is More Effective than Clinical Interviews

Occurrence of Trauma in Fibromyalgia

To determine whether hypnosis is more effective than conventional interviewing to find traumatic life events in patients with fibromyalgia, we carried out a within-subject experimental design with complete intragroup counterbalancing. Thirty-two women under care in a public primary care center gave 2 identical interviews, with an interval of 3 months, in which the occurrence of traumatic life events was explored, once in a state of wakefulness and once in a state of hypnosis. The state of consciousness was evaluated using 3 measures: bispectral index, skin conductance level, and pain intensity. In the hypnotic state, the patients expressed 9.8 times more traumatic life events than in the waking state, a statistically significant difference with a large effect size.

Confirmatory Factor Analysis of the Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Hypnosis–client Version in a Portuguese Sample

Research literature about hypnosis highlights the importance of clients’ attitudes and beliefs toward hypnosis because they promote hypnotic responses and may predict the effectiveness of hypnotic interventions as well as minimize iatrogenic effects for clients. This study analyzes the factorial structure and psychometric properties with confirmatory methodology of the Valencia Scale of Attitudes and Beliefs Toward Hypnosis–Client Version, using a Portuguese sample. We expected to replicate the results obtained in previous research conducted with samples from various countries. The Portuguese sample comprised 1,977 participants. We found a structure of 8 factors, with an adequate internal consistency and test–retest reliability. Results are similar to those found in exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses with samples from other countries.