The authors investigated the feasibility and possible effects of hypnotic suggestion and music for chronic pain. Ten people completed the 2-week intervention that consisted of daily listening to hypnotic suggestions combined with music. Averaged subjective pain intensity, pain bothersomeness, overall distress, anxiety, and depression decreased from baseline to endpoint. Participants rated pre- and postlistening pain intensity and pain bothersomeness decreased for each session. Information provided during end-of-study interviews indicated all participants were satisfied with treatment and felt they benefited from being in the study. Means and standard deviations are reported for outcome measures and a case study is provided. This preliminary study supports the use of a combined hypnotic suggestion and music intervention for chronic pain.
Anxiety is common among breast cancer survivors. This analysis examined the effect of a hypnotic relaxation therapy, developed to reduce hot flashes, on anxiety levels of female breast cancer survivors. Anxiety was assessed using a numeric analog scale and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale-Anxiety subscale. Significant reductions in anxiety were found from pre- to postintervention for each weekly session and were predictive of overall reductions in anxiety from baseline to after the last intervention. In this analysis, hypnotizability did not significantly predict for anxiety reductions measured before and after each session or from baseline to exit. These data provide initial support for the use of hypnotic relaxation therapy to reduce anxiety among breast cancer survivors.
Sexual dysfunction is a common problem for postmenopausal women. This study, as part of a larger randomized controlled trial, examined the effect of hypnotic relaxation therapy on sexual dysfunction, a secondary study outcome, in postmenopausal women. Sexual function was assessed using the Sexual Activity Questionnaire (SAQ). Significant improvement in sexual pleasure and discomfort were reported following 5 weekly sessions of hypnotic relaxation therapy, compared with those receiving an attention control. Total SAQ scores showed significant improvement in the hypnotic relaxation therapy treatment group while holding baseline SAQ scores constant. Improvements showed a slight increase at the Week 12 follow-up. The results of this analysis provide initial support for the use of hypnotic relaxation therapy to improve sexual function in postmenopausal women.
Assessment of hypnotizability can provide important information for hypnosis research and practice. The Elkins Hypnotizability Scale (EHS) consists of 12 items and was developed to provide a time-efficient measure for use in both clinical and laboratory settings. The EHS has been shown to be a reliable measure with support for convergent validity with the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (r = .821, p < .001). The current study examined the factor structure of the EHS, which was administered to 252 adults (51.3% male; 48.7% female). Average time of administration was 25.8 minutes. Four factors selected on the basis of the best theoretical fit accounted for 63.37% of the variance. The results of this study provide an initial factor structure for the EHS.