This study examined the relationship between the Hypnotic Induction Profile (HIP) and several psychological tests: Tellegen Absorption Scale (TAS), Spontaneity Assessment Inventory-Revised (SAI-R), Dissociative Experiences Scale (DES), Short-Form Boundary Questionnaire (SFBQ), Mini Locus of Control (MLOC), Testoni Death Representation Scale (TDRS), and the Interpersonal Reactivity Index (IRI). Two hundred and forty volunteers were administered the above tests; 78 of them were also administered the HIP, and its scores were compared to those on the other tests. A significant correlation was found among the TAS, DES, SFBQ and IRI. The HIP was significantly correlated to the DES (r = .19 p1tail = .045), and the IRI-c subscale (r = .19 p1tail = .044); 14 test items from DES, IRI, TAS, SAIR, and SFBQ were also significantly related to the HIP. The findings suggest that hypnotizability may relate to stronger perception of the inner world, decreased aptitude for managing memory processing, and increased sensitivity and empathy.
This article describes the history, rationale, and guidelines for developing a new definition of hypnosis by the Society of Psychological Hypnosis, Division 30 of the American Psychological Association. The definition was developed with the aim of being concise, heuristic, and allowing for alternative theories of the mechanisms (to be determined in empirical scientific study). The definition of hypnosis is presented as well as definitions of the following related terms: hypnotic induction, hypnotizability, and hypnotherapy. The implications for advancing research and practice are discussed. The definitions are presented within the article.
We sadly lost our friend and colleague Edward J. (“Fast Eddie”) Frischholz, PhD, at the young age of 58. He died of heart failure, a complication of septic shock. He was a passionate advocate for the field of hypnosis, a tough monitor of its quality, a fine clinician, and an excellent researcher/statistician.
Ed received his BA summa cum laude in Psychology and English at age 19, and one year later his MS in Human Resources (Family Therapy, Biscayne College, renamed St. Thomas University, Florida, 1975 and 1976). He earned his MA in Psychology (Psychometrics) from Fordham University, New York, in 1980, and his PhD in Clinical Psychology from the University of Illinois, Chicago Campus, in 1990. He did his clinical internship at Bellevue Hospital (New York University, New York, 1988). As a research associate with Dr. Herbert Spiegel, he studied the diagnostic and therapeutic implications of the Hypnotic Induction Profile. He published his first paper at age 23 as the last author with Martin Orne, Ernest Hilgard, Herbert Spiegel, David Spiegel, Helen Crawford, Fred Evans, and Emily Orne on “The Relation Between the Hypnotic Induction Profile and the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scales, Forms A and C” in the International Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis. He went on to author 48 papers and chapters and gave many lucid and dynamic presentations. He received at least 12 awards including the Milton Erickson Award for Scientific Writing on Hypnosis twice (1981, 2006). Over the years, he taught at the University of Illinois, Loyola, Columbia, and at The Adler School of Professional Psychology. As a clinical psychologist, he was on staff at Rush North Shore Medical Center and in private practice. He was Editor of the American Journal of Clinical Hypnosis from 1994–2000. He was President of Division 30 (Psychological Hypnosis) of the American Psychological Association (APA) and of the Society for Clinical and Experimental Hypnosis (SCEH). He was a Fellow of the American Society of Clinical Hypnosis (ASCH), SCEH, and APA.